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Dangerous Goods

Dangerous Goods

Dangerous Goods

Dangerous goods classes and packaging groups

 

There are the following classes of dangerous goods in the ADR:

Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

Class 4.1

Class 4.2

Class 4.3

Class 5.1

Class 6.1

Class 6.2

Class 7

Class 8

Class 9

Explosive materials, and objects with explosive material

Gases

Inflammable liquid materials

Inflammable solid materials, auto-decomposing materials, and desensitised explosive solid materials

Spontaneously flammable materials

Materials which develop flammable gases in contact with water

Materials with igniting (oxidising) effect

Poisonous materials

Infectious materials

Radioactive materials

Corrosive materials

Various dangerous materials and objects

A UN number is assigned to every entry in the various classes

For packaging purposes, certain materials may be assigned to packaging groups because of their degree of danger. These packaging groups have the following meaning:

 

Packaging group I:   Highly dangerous materials

 

Packaging group II:   Moderately dangerous materials

 

Packaging group III:   Slightly dangerous materials

 

In the third position of the packaging code number there is a letter which indicates the material group for which the packaging construction type is permitted:

 

X  for packagings for materials in packaging groups I to III;

Y  for packagings for materials in packaging groups II and III;

Z  for packagings for materials in packaging group III.

 

Packagings for dangerous goods

 

Packaging types: (as per attachment A General regulations and regulations for dangerous materials and objects in the ADR) extract; no claim to completeness

 

Definitions

Subject to the particular provisions of each dangerous materials class, the packagings listed below may be used:

 

Outer packaging: The external protection of a composite packaging or a combination packaging, including the materials with absorbent properties, the padding materials, and all other components which are required in order to enclose and protect inner receptacles or inner packaging.

 

Salvage packaging: Special packaging which complies with the applicable requirements of section 6.1 (ADR), and in which damaged, defective, or leaking shipping items with dangerous goods, or dangerous goods which have leaked or been spilled are placed, in order to transport them for purposes of recovery or disposal.

 

Container: a transport device (of framework construction or similar), which is of a permanent character and is therefore sufficiently resistant to be used repeatedly, which is specifically built to simplify the transport of goods by one or more carriers without changing the load, which is fitted with devices simplifying the fixing in place and handling, especially when transferring from one means of transport to another, which is built so that transfer from one means of transport to another is simplified. (Note: the term 'container' does not include normal packagings, intermediate bulk containers (IBC), tank containers, or vehicles.)

 

Drum: Cylindrical packaging made from metal, board, plastic, plywood, or another suitable material, and having flat or domed ends. This term also includes packagings of other forms, e.g. round packagings with a conical throat, or bucket-shaped packagings. This term does not include wooden barrels or canisters.

 

Light gauge metal packagings: Packaging with round, elliptical, rectangular, or polygonal cross-section (also conical) as well as packaging with a conical throat, or bucket-shaped packaging, made from metal with a wall thickness less than 0.5 mm (e.g. tinplate), with flat or domed ends, with one or more openings, and which does not fall under the definitions of drum or canister.

 

Cylinder: Mobile pressure container with a volume of up to 150 litres.

 

Flexible intermediate bulk container (IBC): A large scale packaging unit which consists of a packaging body fitted with appropriate operating and handling devices, which is made of a sheet, weave or other flexible material or of a combination of materials of this type, and which has an inner coating or lining where required.

 

Intermediate bulk container (IBC): Rigid or flexible transportable packaging which is not listed in section 6.1 (ADR) and:

 

a) which has a volume of at most 3.0 m - for solid and liquid materials in packaging groups II + III at most 1.5 m - for solid materials in packaging group I, if these are packed in flexible IBCs, plastic IBCs, combination IBCs, IBCs made from wood or board.

at most 3.0 m - for solid materials in packaging group I, if these are packed in metal IBCs.

at most 3.0 m - for radioactive materials of class 7.

b) is designed for mechanical handling.

c) can withstand stresses during handling and transport; this must be confirmed by means of the tests specified in section 6.5 (ADR) (comment 1: Tank containers which comply with the requirements of sections 6.7 or 6.8 (ADR) are deemed not to be intermediate bulk containers).

2. Intermediate bulk containers (IBC) which comply with the requirements of section 6.8 are deemed not to be containers within the meaning of the ADR.

 

Wooden barrel: Packaging made from natural wood, with a round cross-section and bellied walls, which consists of staves and ends, and is fitted with hoops.

 

IBC: see 'Intermediate bulk container'.

 

Inner receptacle: Receptacle which requires an outer packaging in order to fulfil its function as a receptacle.

 

Inner packaging: Packaging for the transport of which an outer packaging is required.

 

Canister: Packaging made of metal or plastic, of rectangular or polygonal cross-section, with one or more openings.

 

Crate: Rectangular or polygonal solid-walled packaging made from metal, wood, plywood, fibreboard, board, plastic, or another suitable material. As long as the integrity of the packaging during transport is not put at risk, small openings may be provided in order to simplify the handling or opening, or to comply with the classification criteria.

 

Composite IBC with plastic inner receptacle: An IBC which consists of a frame in the form of a rigid exterior shell around a plastic inner receptacle with operating or other structural devices. It is designed in such a way that the combination of the inner receptacle and the outer shell creates an inseparable unit which is filled, stored, transported, or emptied as such (comment: When the term "plastic" is used in combination with the inner receptacles of composite IBCs, it also includes other polymeric materials such as rubber etc).

 

Composite packaging (plastic): Packaging consisting of an inner plastic receptacle and an outer packaging (made of metal, carton, plywood, etc). Once it has been assembled, it then creates an inseparable unit, which is filled, stored, transported, or emptied as such (comment: see comment for "Composite packaging (glass, porcelain, or stoneware)")

 

Composite packaging (glass, porcelain, or stoneware): Packaging consisting of an inner receptacle made from glass, porcelain, or stoneware and an outer packaging (made of metal, wood, board, plastic, foam etc). Once it has been assembled, it then creates an inseparable unit, which is filled, stored, transported, or emptied as such (comment: the inner component of the composite packaging is normally described as "inner receptacle". So, for example, the "inner" of a 6HA1 Composite packaging (plastic) is such an "inner receptacle" because it is not normally intended to fulfil the function of a receptacle without its outer packaging, so it is therefore not "inner packaging").

 

Reconditioned packaging: Packaging, especially

a) a metal drum:

which was cleaned in such a way that the construction materials regain their original appearance, and that in this way all residue of the former contents, as well as internal and external corrosion, and external coatings and labelling were removed, which was returned to its original form and profile, during which seams (if present) were fixed and sealed, and all seals which are not an integral part of the packaging were replaced, and which after cleaning but before recoating was inspected, during which packagings with visible small holes, a significant reduction in the thickness of the material, metal fatigue, damaged threading or closures, or other significant defects must be rejected;

b) a drum or canister made of plastic:

which was cleaned in such a way that the construction materials regain their original appearance, during which, all residue of the former contents, as well as external coatings and labelling were removed;

whose seals which are not an integral part of the packaging were replaced, and which after cleaning was inspected, during which packagings with visible damage such as cracks, folding, or breaks, damaged threading or closures, or other significant defects must be rejected.

 

Sack: Flexible packaging made from paper, plastic sheets, textiles, woven or other suitable materials.

 

Closure: A device which is used to close the opening of a receptacle.

 

Combination packaging: Packaging combined for transport, consisting of one or more inner packagings which as per subsection 4.1.3.1 (ADR) must be used in an outer packaging (comment: The "inner" of the combination packaging is always described as "inner packaging", not as "inner receptacle". A glass bottle is an example of such an inner packaging).

 

 

 

Important terms: (as per attachment A General regulations and regulations for dangerous materials and objects in the ADR) extract; no claim to completeness

 

 

ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road

 

Solid: A substance with a melting point or initial melting point of more than 20 °C at a pressure of 101.3 kPa

or

A substance which is not liquid according to the ASTM D 4359-90 test method or which is pasty according to the criteria applicable to the test for determining fluidity (penetrometer test) described in 2.3.4. Solid.

 

Flash point: The lowest temperature of a liquid at which its vapours form a flammable mixture with air.

 

Liquid: A substance which at 50 °C has a vapour pressure of not more than 300 kPa (3 bar), which is not completely gaseous at 20 °C and 101.3 kPa, and which has a melting point or initial melting point of 20 °C or less at a pressure of 101.3 kPa

or

is liquid according to the ASTM D 4359-90 test method

or

is not pasty according to the criteria applicable to the test for determining fluidity (penetrometer test) described in 2.3.4 (ADR). Liquid.

 

Dangerous materials class: Classification of dangerous materials into various classes. Dangerous materials class.

 

GGVE: German regulation on carriage of dangerous goods by rail internally and to other countries. GGVE = Railway dangerous goods regulation.

 

GGVS: German regulation on carriage of dangerous goods by road internally and to other countries. GGVS = Regulation on dangerous goods by road.

 

GGVSee: German regulation on the maritime carriage of dangerous goods.

GGVE = Maritime dangerous goods regulation

 

Maximum net mass: The maximum net mass of contents in a single packaging or maximum combined mass of inner packagings and the contents thereof expressed in kilograms.

 

Maximum capacity: The maximum inner volume of receptacles or packagings including intermediate bulk containers (IBCs) and large packagings expressed in cubic metres or litres.

 

Maximum permissible gross mass:

a) (for all categories of IBCs other than flexible IBCs): The mass of the IBC and any service or structural equipment together with the maximum net mass.

b) (for tanks): The sum of the tare of the tank and the heaviest load authorized for carriage.

 

IATA: International dangerous goods regulations for the transport of dangerous goods by worldwide air traffic. IATA.

 

IMDG code: International code for the maritime transport of dangerous goods, rules for implementation in section VII part A of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974 (SOLAS agreement), published by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), London. IMDG code.

 

Liner: A tube or bag inserted into a packaging, including large packagings or IBCs, but not forming an integral part of it, including the closures of its openings.

 

Test pressure: The maximum effective pressure which occurs in the tank during pressure testing.

 

RID: Regulations Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail [attachment I to appendix B ADR (uniform legal requirements for the agreement on the international carriage of goods by rail) (CIM) of COTIF (Convention concerning International Carriage of Goods by Rail)] RID.

 

UN Model Regulations: The model regulations contained in the attachment to the eleventh revised edition of the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, published by the United Nations (ST/SG/AC.10/1/Rev.11).

 

UN number: The four-figure identification number of the substance or article taken from the UN Model Regulations.

 

Packing group: A group to which, for packing purposes, certain substances may be assigned in accordance with their degree of danger. The packing groups have the following meanings which are explained more fully in Part 2 of ADR: Packing group.

 

Packing group I: Substances presenting high danger

Packing group II: Substances presenting medium danger

Packing group III: Substances presenting low danger

 

Note: Certain articles containing dangerous goods are also assigned to a packing group.

What are dangerous goods?

Dangerous goods are materials and objects from which dangers to life and health may result. These include e.g. infectious materials. all flammable liquids, radioactive materials, and many chemicals.

 

The transport of dangerous goods requires the highest vigilance in order to exclude damage to life, health, the environment, and commercial materials.

 

In order to maximise safety, legislators have created sets of rules such as the German regulation on carriage of dangerous goods (GGV) and the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR).

 

However accidents with dangerous goods are reported almost every day. The reasons often lie in ignorance or incorrect application of the safety measures. Apart from the human suffering, the financial consequences often run into billions of euro.

 

Responsibility for safety during transport of dangerous goods rests on many shoulders. Everyone must contribute his or her part to the safety concept:

 

Those responsible are the sender, carrier, recipient, shipper, packer, filler, manufacturer, vehicle driver, and vehicle owner. An accident can entail significant legal consequences for those responsible.

 

 

What are dangerous materials?

Dangerous materials are materials, preparations, and products with certain properties which are dangerous for humans and for the environment. They can develop physico-chemical, acutely toxic, and chronically toxic effects and have a direct negative effect on health.

 

The basis for handling dangerous materials in undertakings in Germany is the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances with its associated "Technical Regulations for Dangerous Materials" (TRGS). These put the requirements of the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances into concrete terms. Important contents of the ordinance are: Information on dangerous materials (categorisation and identification), hazard assessment, requirement for minimisation, general and particular protective measures (depending on the hazard potential).

 

This creates a range of obligations for the undertakings, e.g. the creation of a register of dangerous materials, instruction of employees, prevention of escape of dangerous materials.

 

So what are dangerous materials and how can they be recognised? The term "dangerous material" results from the combination of §§ 3a, section 1 and 19, section 2 of the Chemical Act and § 4 of the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances (GefStoffV). According to these, dangerous materials are:

 

1. Dangerous materials and preparations which fulfil the criteria specified in table 1.

2. Materials, preparations, and products which are explosive (with or without a supply of air).

3. Materials, preparations, and products which when manufactured or used create or release dangerous or explosive materials or preparations.

 


 

 

Table 1: Danger characteristics as per the Chemicals Act and the GefStoffV

Criterion

Examples

Explosive

Ammonium dichromate, many peroxides

Oxidising

Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, perchloric acid

Extremely flammable

Acetylene, diethyl ether, propellant gases in spray canisters

Highly flammable

Alcohol, ethers, paints, thinners, solvents

Flammable

Alcohols, ethers, paints, thinners, solvents

Very poisonous

Pesticides, nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

Poisonous

Methanol, some isocyanates, sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Injurious to health

Dichloromethane, Tetrachloroethylene (Per), many solvents

Irritant

Products containing cement, disinfectant cleaners

Corrosive

Acids, alkalis, ground and pipework cleaners

Sensitising (allergenic)

Natural latex, turpentine oil, many dusts

Carcinogenic

Benzene, diesel engine emissions, beech dust

Teratogenic

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pentachlorophenol

Toxic for reproduction

PCB, 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane, certain hormones

Mutagenic

Benzene, trimethyl phosphate, benzopyrene

Chronically damaging in other ways

 

Environmentally hazardous

PCBm pesticides, pentachlorophenol

The examples listed indicate that many materials fulfil several danger criteria. Thus, many solvents are both injurious to health and flammable or highly flammable.

 

Generally, the individual hazards are depicted by specific pictograms and abbreviations, and explained by so-called R-phrases (= risk phrases). However, the pictogram may be missing, and characterisation is made by these R-phrases alone. As a rule, S-phrases are also assigned to such material information; these provide safety advice for handling the material.

 

The employer who handles a material, preparation, or product must determine whether it is a dangerous material in terms of the intended handling.

(§ 16 (1) of the GefStoffV - obligation to investigate)

 

The obligation to investigate includes all materials, preparations, and products which are handled within the employer's area of responsibility. Therefore, as well as raw materials, goods, and products manufactured in the undertaking, it is also necessary to evaluate e.g. operating materials for machinery, auxiliaries such as cleaning agents or waste materials and emissions which are generated. The criteria is always (regular) contact.

 

The safety datasheet is decisive for the evaluation.

 

Source: GGV, ADR and Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing) (extracts)

 

Copyright © Leicht & Appel GmbH 2005